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Göbel mirrors of the 2nd and 3rd generation

Göbel mirrors 3rd generation

Göbel mirrors

Optics for 1D X-ray diffractometry

Incoatec offers various types of optics for X-ray diffraction (XRD) devices. Nowadays the most widespread optics for XRD are the so-called "Göbel Mirrors". The Göbel Mirror (GM) converts the X-ray beam coming from an X-ray tube into a parallel or focused beam and additionally monochromatizes it. The mirror consists of multilayers with laterally graded thickness, deposited with extreme accuracy onto a prefigured surface.

XRR Measurement of a V-C multilayer sample with a Göbel Mirror and a comparable system without such optics.


Our product range includes optics for various types of tubes. The table gives an overview of relevant data on our standard mirrors.

In addition to our standard products we also develop special mirrors for specific applications. Please send us your ideas!

Length 40 mm / 60 mm
Focal distance 90 mm / 100 mm / 150 mm
Wavelength Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Ag
Beam geometry for parallel, focusing and divergent
  0.5 mrad
Exit beam width 0.8 mm / 1.2 mm / 1.0 mm
Flux (Cu tube 40 kV 40 mA) 2...3 x 109 cps
Spectral purity 99.8 %
Figure errors of the optic:  
2nd generation 10 arcsec rms (bent wafer)
3rd generation < 4 arcsec rms (prepolished form)


Incoatec offers 3rd Generation GM for highest resolution:

  • optics with slope errors < 4 arcsec
  • lowest divergence and best parallel beam
  • best monochromatization




X-ray reflectometry (XRR)

X-ray instruments equipped with a Göbel Mirror show dramatically improved performances in various types of measurements compared with instruments without a Göbel Mirror. A typical application for GM's is in X-ray Reflectometry (XRR). It is possible to carry out measurements with X-ray Reflectometry in over 9 orders of magnitude. These results can usually be surpassed only by synchrotron X-ray sources

High resolution diffractometry (HRXRD)

A significant intensity gain was also achieved using our X-ray mirrors for measurements in High Resolution Diffractometry. This was made possible by the development of the so-called 3rd generation GM's. They consist of an ultra-precise prepolished parabolical form (with slope errors down to 1 arcsec rms) with an ultra-precise multilayer coating. The intensity achieved by directing a beam from the 3rd Gen GM into channel-cuts was 16 times higher compared to a set-up without a GM.

Powder diffractometry

Together with the standard Parallel Beam Göbel Mirror, Incoatec also produces both Convergent Beam as well as Divergent Beam Göbel Mirrors. In some applications, for example in powder diffractometry, a parallel beam is not always the best choice. Better results are achieved with a slightly divergent Göbel Mirror due to a maximization of intensity. The product range includes optics for various types of tubes.


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